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4 Questions About Google Books

4 Questions About Google Books

Introduction
Google Books are part of the Google Books Library Project that aims to provide digital information and in some cases entire digital versions of books formerly in print.  This is through a partnership with several libraries and attempts to create a universal digital card catalogue.

Which books become digitized?
Whether entire books, snippets or basic information appear about a book depend on the status of that work’s copyright.  Older books that are out of copyright project are digitized in full and available for viewing and downloading.  Books entered into the system are searchable and a “snippet” view will show the sentences around the term if the entire book is still under copyright.  Links are available to buy or borrow the book from various vendors and libraries.

How does Google receive works to be digitized?
Google has several library partners from academic and government institutions in the US, Europe and Japan.  These institutions have various levels of participation on the project but generally a partnership gives Google access to the libraries’ collection of books.  Google uses a high speed camera to capture all the pages in the book and then process the information using text recognition software.  Entries with bibliographic and subject information are created and achieved.

How do I become a partner in the project?
Google maintains an electronic form for authors and publishers for authors planning to submit their works to Google Books.

What is the legal controversy over Google Books?
Google has maintained a “partnership” program with a number of authors and publishers to allow books to be digitized and entered into the Google Books Library Project.  Despite this partnership, concern of Google’s practices resulted in a copyright infringement class action lawsuit brought by many of the program’s partners as well as the Author’s Guild, Association of American publishers and several individuals.  Publishers were unhappy that Google had scanned their works and although not providing full access, nonetheless saved the completed works in its database.  This led to fears that Google could someday profit from these complete scanned works by offering subscriptions to access the database.  There are additional concerns about use privacy and accusations that Google had not done enough to protect users of Google Books services.
Google has countered these claims by insisting that the Google Books Project is intend to create awareness about books still under copyright and link potential readers with books that match topics that interest them.  Google Books already has ads that would direct readers to vendors where they can buy the book they are previewing.  Additionally, Google stresses the fact that only snippets and bibliographic information is displayed which is admissible under “fair use” provisions of US copyright law.  Google also claims no profit from providing this resource.
The terms of settlement remain resolved at the time of this article’s writing.  To keep up to date on the development please visit Google Book’s legal page at https://books.google.com/googlebooks/agreement/.
Source: https://books.google.com/googlebooks/agreement/

Austin Public Library

Austin Public Library

Introduction
The precursor to the modern Austin Public Library started in 1926 by the efforts of Grace Delano Clark with 500 volumes and 1,800 square feet of space.  Since then, the system has expanded to twenty branches including a Central Branch in 1979 and another proposed Central Library to open in 2014.  There are 483,099 card holders and 1,465,765 items.
What are some services provided by the Austin Public Library?


The Austin Public Library offers bilingual information and special equipment for individuals with disabilities.  Like many other libraries they maintain collections of multimedia and provided free computers and wireless internet.  Faulk Central Branch, as well as many other branches offer key community services such as small business advice and computer training and New Immigrants Centers.  Services provided at the Immigrants Center included English conversational practice space, legal and employment assistant and information on the processes to become a US citizen.
One may access the Library catalogue and a number of research databases at the Austin Public Library website.


How do I contact the Austin Public Library?
If you live in Austin, you may dial 311 to get in contact with the library or dial (512)-974-2000 for individuals not living in Austin.  
Important links:
Main website – https://www.ci.austin.tx.us/library/
Calendar of Events – https://www.ci.austin.tx.us/library/calendar.htm
Locations and Hours: https://www.ci.austin.tx.us/library/map.htm

Nashville Public Library

Nashville Public Library

Introduction
The Nashville Public Library system has served the citizens of Nashville, Tennessee for a number of decades with the first public library being Howard Library, established in 1898 and loaned book to individuals that paid $2 for a “reader’s card.”  The most famous Nashville public library was the Carnegie library, established at the turn of the century with funding from steel magnate Andrew Carnegie.
Where is the Main Library located?


The main library is located at:
615 Church Street
Nashville, TN 37219
This is the only location on Fridays.  This location also provides hearing impaired services Tuesday to Friday 9 – 2 or by appointment.
Where can I find information on Branch locations and hours of operation?
The Nashville Public Library website maintains listings of all of its locations and hours of operations. This information is also available in downloadable .pdf format at: https://www.library.nashville.org/locations/loc_all.asp
What other services does the Nashville Public Library provide?
The NPL maintains a listing of databases and resources for residents to discover their genealogy and local history.  For a nominal fee, residents can receive copies of original documents from the metropolitan such as marriage and birth certificates.  There are additional special collections showcasing the history of Nashville on the central libraries’ second floor.  Like most libraries, the Nashville libraries hold programming from young children and plan oral history projects to commemorate important events.

What are the Hours of Operation for the Library of Congress?

What are the Hours of Operation for the Library of Congress?

Introduction

As the Library of Congress is a large institution with several buildings, there are no standard hours of operation for all of its buildings.  All buildings are closed on Sundays, Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day and New Year’s Day.  The Jefferson building remains open on all other federal holidays but the Adams and Madison Buildings are closed.

The Thomas Jefferson Building is open:

Monday – Saturday

 8:30am – 4:30pm

The James Madison and John Adams buildings have special hours for researchers and staff and are not open to the public past 6pm.

The James Madison Building is open:

Monday – Friday

8:30am – 9:30pm

Saturday

8:30am – 5pm

The John Adams Building is open

Monday, Wednesday, Thursday

8:30am – 9:30pm

Tuesday, Friday, Saturday

8:30am – 5pm

 Researchers are also required to make a note of specific reading room hours located at: https://www.loc.gov/rr/hours.html

Source: https://www.loc.gov/visit/hours/

3 Facts About The New York Public Library

3 Facts About The New York Public Library

Introduction
The New York Public Library is one the world’s most important public library systems providing service to three boroughs of New York City.  The library has over ten million holdings including the original manuscript of the Declaration of Independence and the Gutenberg Bible.  Today there are 87 libraries in Manhattan, The Bronx and Staten Island with all but 10 being branch libraries.  The remaining libraries are central libraries, research libraries and library for the blind and deaf.  Branch libraries operate with public funding from the city of New York and the main and research libraries tend to have private philanthropic benefactors.

What is the history of the New York Public Library?
The modern New York Public Library system grew out of two large but financially insolvent private libraries donated for public use and a trust of 2.4 million dollars left for the establishment of a library by former New York Governor Samuel Tilden.   The Astor and Lenox libraries were merged their assets with assets from the Tilden foundation and oversaw the construction of the current main branch of the New York Public Library, with its iconic Library Lion statues on Fifth Avenue between 40th and 42nd streets.  An additional grant from Andrew Carnegie saw the establishments of several branch libraries.
How do I get a library card from the New York Public Library?
Any person that lives, works, attends school or pays property taxes in New York may receive a library card free of charge.  Proof of identity is required to apply for a library card or pick up a card applied for on the New York Public Library website.  Valid government ID for adults includes driver’s licenses and permits.  Young adults may present school IDs or report cards.  There is an additional list of accepted identifications at https://www.nypl.org/help/library-card/terms-conditions but the applicant must have two of these forms of identification.  Children under 11 years must be accompanied by an adult.  There are temporary and limited exceptions for non-New York residents that wish to utilize library services.  Most on-site library resources do not require the user to have a library card.
It is important to note that library cards expire every three years and must be renewed by presenting acceptable forms of identification.  There is a $1.00 fee to replace lost or stolen cards and there will be fines for overdue materials.  To access the New York Public Libraries’ research buildings, one must acquire a special card, known as an Access Card to enter and use any of the four NYPL research libraries.
What are other services provided by the New York Public Library?
The NYPL offers premium research services that help individuals locate materials related to their needs.  The library also has the ability to reproduce materials and grant permissions to publish some materials in the collection with fees depending on whether the file must be scanned and the re-rights right granted to the individual to use public domain or rights-controlled works.
Hours and locations will vary so for information on branch libraries please visit: https://www.nypl.org/locations

Library of Congress Authorities

Library of Congress Authorities

Introduction
The Library of Congress Authorities is a service that helps to standardize library catalogues by providing an authority on the proper forms of names, titles and subjects.  The Library of Congress Authorities is a service primarily designed for librarians, although it is open to the public and can be a valuable resource in learning more about an author’s alias or corporate name change.  There are 265.000 subject authority records and 5.3 million name authority records reflecting the sheer number of data managed by the Library of Congress.
The Authorities are updated daily Monday through Saturday to reflect the Library of Congress’s ever-expanding collection.  The records are organized by MARC 21 authority that comprises a series of codes and designations to identify the content.  There is established protocol for headings and the nature of the content.  The Library of Congress Authorities and the Library of Congress Catalog are not linked, although the information gleaned from the Authorities may help the researcher find relevant information in the catalogue.
How do I use the Library of Congress Authorities?
The Authorities website, authorities.loc.gov has a search function, but it’s important to note that this is not a typical search function.  Keywords cannot be used.  The authorities assume you already know the name or title of the desired work or author.  
As a result, there are four search options:
Subject Authorities Headings
Name Authority Headings
Title Authority Headings
Name/Title Authority Headings
If one would like to search the authorities, click on the “Search Authorities” and the center and top of the Library of Congress Authorities website welcome page.
For this example, we will find the standardized, Library of Congress authority on William Shakespeare as it should be entered into a library catalogue.
1. To find an author, the name must be entered last name first.  Typing “William Shakespeare” will show you results about the William Shakespeare Company of Kalamazoo, Michigan. 
2. Enter the search text, in this case “Shakespeare, William” into the box.  Remember that this search does not support “keywords” so typing “William Shakespeare works” will not be helpful.
a. Omit all punctuation include apostrophes from names
3. From the list of results, select Shakespeare, William – 1564 – 1616 as this is the Shakespeare we want.  Clicking on the record will show all variants for this author’s name, from the name that the author used toward the end of his life “William Shakspeare” to the Chinese equivalent of the author’s name “Sha-shih-pi-ya.”
Sources: https://www.loc.gov/marc/authority/adintro.html

Where can I find novels and other books online?

Where can I find novels and other books online?

Introduction

As the availability of eBooks has skyrocketed since its conception in 1971, the Internet has revolutionized ways people can purchase and view books.  There now exist many ways to find books and novels online including some free options if the work has entered the public domain.

What is the public domain?

The public domain describes when a creative of scientific work has its intellectual property rights expire and becomes available for use member of society.  In the case of books, copyrights generally expire a number of years after the death of the author.  When those rights expire, you may be able to find a version of it online that can be downloaded to be read on other formats or read directly off a computer.

What is Google Libraries?

Google Libraries is a project that seeks to improve access of the world’s books to the average internet user.  It scans many published works and converts it to a readable and searchable format.  For works with existing copyrights, Google Libraries reveals portions of texts as previews or “snippets” so that users may indentify out of print works that may be useful to them.  Most importantly, books that enter the public domain may be downloaded for free from this service into an eBook format.  Books that have not entered public domain may also be downloaded if the author or publisher has allowed for the free digital distribution of his or her work.

What are some other resources for online books and novels?

The University of Pennsylvania maintains an online books library that aggregates the free content of eBook publishers and transcribers across the Internet.  The largest contributor of eBooks to this library is the Gutenberg Project that conceived of the first eBook in 1971 – the US Declaration of Independence, with the dream of allowing personal digital libraries catered to individual interests.  One may either search or browse the library and the entries will link to another site that hosts the book online.

Additionally, there is the website openlibrary.org that hosts over one million free eBooks.  Openlibrary.org is a project hosted by the Internet Achieve, a non-profit that documents important digital data and artifacts.  Unlike other collections, it is open source so any one may edit the catalogue, add books or correct mistakes.  Free online books are hosted the website and accessed through a readers.  The reader supports scrolling and zoom functions for easy user accessibility.  In addition to access to free eBooks, there is also a “lending library” where a user can “borrow” an eBook for two weeks at a time.

Links – 

https://www.google.com/googlebooks/library.html

https://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/

https://www.archive.org/

https://openlibrary.org/

 

Where can I find cheap books?

Where can I find cheap books?

 

Introduction

Just as the internet has increased the flow of information for users, it has also revolutionized the way people shop for books.  This change is significant enough to imperil the traditional business of booksellers and force them to adapt to changing market conditions.

Who are the reliable sellers for books?

Although there are many sellers offering cheap books, not every vendor is a reputable dealer.  It is of the buyer’s interest to use a reputable seller, such as Amazon.com or www.barnesandnoble.com that will guarantee the book you buy will be at the condition promised and delivered in a timely manner.

What are some drawbacks of buying cheap books online?

When buying cheap books at below market prices, especially used books, there runs the risk that the seller has exaggerated the extent of damage to the book in order to sell it.  Many sellers will include return addresses to return items that the customer is dissatisfied with.  Bear in mind that not all sellers are reputable and may refuse refunds.

An additional drawback is the cost of shipping books from the seller to the consumer.  Often, the price of shipping to applied to the cost of the book to defer some of the costs to the seller.  This may lead to misleading pricing.  Additionally, some websites will not display the cost of shipping, tricking the consumer into believing that a good deal is in fact a mediocre deal.  Most reputable sellers will give the buyer an option to sort the cost of the book by price and shipping to express the actual cost to the buyer.  Additionally, many sellers offer periods of free shipping promotions.  Amazon.com Prime Membership for example, offers membership that qualifies all members for free 2-day shipping as well as free 2-day shipping for college students.

Why should I use a site such as Amazon.com?

Amazon.com, in addition to selling a multitude of items also acts as a middle man between small scale sellers and the consumer.  In this way, the consumer will benefit from Amazon’s anti-fraud protections and user feedback systems to rate sellers based on their honesty and customer service  Personal auction sites, such as Ebay.com also have fraud protections and customer ratings, but sellers and buyers must usually interact to resolve issues stemming from the order.

Where should I go if I do not want to buy cheap books on the Internet?

Most large cities will have independent book sellers that stock new and used books at discounted rates.  Additionally, large chains, such as Barnes and Nobles have discount racks that offer significant discounts on old and overstocked books.  

Free Online Libraries Benefits

Free Online Libraries Benefits

An online library is an internet resource that complies and catalogues information on printed works as well as digital works.  Some online libraries may have eBooks and e-texts accessible with the site, increasing convenience to the researcher.  Most academic institutions will have online libraries as resources to students to help them navigate their usual labyrinthine physical libraries catalogued by the Library of Congress classification system.  Some free however, online libraries do exist, so long as the works in question have entered the public domain or have expressed consent to distribute content on behalf of the author or publisher.
What are some free public online library resources?
Most major public libraries maintain online catalogues and information related to their physical library locations.  Depending on the size and scope of the organization, the website may also include information on special events and access to historical databases related to the municipalities’ history.  Although these resources are usually free for library cardholders, some of the larger library systems, such as the New York Public Library will allow access to the general public.  The University of Pennsylvania aggregated free eBooks from around the internet and has created a reference database that allows readers to view and find those eBooks.
What are some free online libraries?
Perhaps the greatest online library in terms of scope and organization is the Open Library at openlibrary.org.  Open library is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization that is an initiative of archive.org as well as public funding from the California State Library and private funding from the Kahle/Austin Foundation.  As this website is open source, users may edit and submit content, making the library a collective project.  The Open Library hosts 1,000,000 free eBook titles that may be read at any time as well as a lending library where only one eBook is available and it must be returned in two weeks so that another reader may enjoy it.  Users may also create and share reading lists or explore specific subjects as the books have been categorized for easy reference.  Lastly, open library seeks to create the world’s largest catalogue, with every book ever published represented by a page on its website.
The Internet Public Library is a collection of library science professionals that have formed a consortium with the intention of providing easier access to library resources and educational projects.  For instance, the iPL has created a “Presidents of the United States” collection to assemble biographical information, notable events and trivia on each US president as well as their cabinet.  There are also research and writing guides for visitors as well as a database of newspapers and resources categorized by subject as aids to students and researchers.  

What are the Photo Resources of the Library of Congress?

What are the Photo Resources of the Library of Congress?

 
 
Introduction
 
 
The Library of Congress, during its evolution as the depository for knowledge on several academic and cultural subjects, amassed a sizable collection of photographs and other visual material.  These materials have since been catalogued and categorized for ease use.  Additionally, digital resources exist for the convenient access of some materials.
 
 
Where should I start looking for photos in the Library of Congress?
 
 
The best place to begin is The Prints and Photographs Online at loc.gov/pictures.  The Library of Congress has worked to digitize many of its photos for public viewing.  Other non-digitized works are catalogue for easy reference and retrieval.  The Prints and Photographs Online Catalogue maintains an easy search function as well as featured collections on the first page. 
 
 
How do I search the Prints and Photographs Online Catalogue?
 
 
The simple search function is all that is needed to find photo materials at the Library of Congress
 
 
To start, go to loc.gov/pictures
 
 
  • Enter the keyword in the “search all” box, or the purposes of this example,  the South Andean beasts of burden, “alpaca”
  • You will see either results noting the date, size and classification.  You may also sort the results by the availability of the original photograph or print, from images available only at the LoC, images available everywhere and items that have not been digitized.
  • Clicking on the first time “Four alpacas by a wall, Peru” will bring up detailed information which in this case, tells us the picture in question is a Peruvian postcard created in 1939 belonging to a miscellaneous collection.  
  • There are other options on the page to obtain additional copies and access to the original document.
 
 
How do I obtain copies of LoC material?
 
 
The Library of Congress does not own the rights to most of the materials in the library.  The LoC advisees that individuals seeking to use materials from the collection to abides by standards of “fair use” and to take note of any and all information in the catalogue record.
 
 
How do I gain access to original photos or prints?
 
 
The LoC requires individuals to check if the item they want to access is digitized.  Without a compelling reason, the Library will deny access to the original if a digital copy exists.  This is a cautionary measure to prevent unnecessary damage to the original works.  If there is not a digital copy, one must check the call number which will indicate if there are copies or other records of the original, such as microfilm.  Lastly, if no surrogate, copy or digitized form exists, one must fill out a call slip, in person, at the Prints and Photographs Reading Room.  The staff will either retrieve the material or schedule an appointment for the retrieval of the original item.
 
 
Source: https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/93509256/